Mumps virus family genus

Child with mumps.Even though the mumps virus, Rubulavirus, shares similar morphologic features to human parainfluenza viruses (known as hPIVs, as part of the Paramyxovirus genus), no cross-immunity between these viruses is known. The mumps virus does share various epidemiologic characteristics with other well-known viral pediatric diseases, such as measles (RNA virus, of the genus Morbillivirus, in the Paramyxoviridae family) and rubella (RNA virus, of the genus Rubivirus, in the Togaviridae family).

Mumps occurs worldwide. Humans are the only known natural hosts. This Paramyxovirus is highly infectious to nonimmune individuals and is the only cause of epidemic parotitis. (See Epidemiology.) Although mumps cases occur at any time of year, an increase in case number is noted during late winter and early spring.

Mumps and SARS

During the 2003 epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), it was thought that the SARS-causing virus belonged to the Paramyxoviridae family. However, current case criteria have determined that SARS follows the clinical, laboratory, and transmission characteristics of an RNA coronavirus named SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). [, ]

Vaccination history and timeline

The monovalent live, attenuated mumps vaccine was licensed in the United States in December 1967, and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that its use be considered for children nearing puberty, for adolescents, and for adults. At this time, the public health community considered mumps vaccination a low priority; as such, the ACIP believed that mumps immunization should not compromise the effectiveness of established immunization public health programs. By 1972, the ACIP recommendations were changed to indicate that mumps vaccination was particularly important for the initially targeted teenage and adult age groups. Hence, in 1977, routine vaccination was recommended for all children age 12 years and older. (See Treatment)

In 1980, further recommendations called for mumps vaccination of susceptible children, adolescents, and adults, unless it was medically contraindicated. Following these comprehensive recommendations and enactment of state laws requiring mumps vaccination for school entry and attendance, the reported incidence of mumps steadily declined.

However, in 1986 and 1987, large outbreaks of mumps occurred among under-immunized cohorts of people born between 1967 and 1977, as based on a single-dose mumps vaccine regimen. This caused a shift in peak incidence from persons age 5-9 years to those age 10-19 years. In 1989, the ACIP recommended that a second dose of mumps-containing vaccine be given to children age 4-6 years (at time of entry to kindergarten or first grade) and designated MMR as the vaccine of choice. [, ]

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